A Practical Guide for Irrigation Development
|Schistosomiasis is a major health problem in parts of Africa, South America and Asia where it is endemic in many countries. Freshwater is required for several parts of the lifecycle of the schistome parasite and, as a consequence, this disease can be a major problem where freshwater resources are being developed. In particular, there is concern over the increased transmission of Schistosomiasis linked to irrigation projects. This practical guide sets out the lifecycle of the parasite and describes practical interventions to reduce levels of infection on irrigation schemes.|
In a research project at Mushandike irrigation scheme in Zimbabwe, an assessment was made of the extent to which engineers and planners, in co-operation with health professionals, could control the transmission of schistosomiasis through careful design and operation of the irrigation works and domestic facilities.
With an understanding of the schistome life cycle, all those involved in the planning and design of water resources projects, can incorporate measures into the basic scheme design which can have a significant effect on reducing levels of schistosomiasis infection. The Guide aims to provide that understanding.
What it covers
Experience from a number of countries shows that the long term control of Schistosomiasis is most effective when carried out within the primary health care system.
This report will therefore be useful to
health professionals to raise their awareness that methods do exist by which design engineers can use preventative measures,such as:
Decisions made at the early planning phase can also have
long-lasting implications for the health of the population. Potential
transmission sites include:
Distance from potentially infected water bodies should, therefore, be an important consideration in the selection of sites for locating villages.
The provision of safe water supplies and adequate sanitation will also contribute significantly to reducing infection levels and preventing contamination of water bodies with schistome eggs.
Contributors Intended users Thomson, AJ; Chimbari, M; Chandiwana, SK; Ndlela, B and Chitsiko, RJ, 1996. Control of Scistosomiasis: A Practical Guide for Irrigation Development. HR Wallingford, UK. Report no. OD/TN 78.
Thomson, AJ; Chimbari, M; Chandiwana, SK; Ndlela, B and Chitsiko, RJ, 1996. Control of Scistosomiasis: A Practical Guide for Irrigation Development. HR Wallingford, UK. Report no. OD/TN 78.
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